Right to Equality : Article 14-18

Article 14 Equality before law


The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.


Article 15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth




  • (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
  • (2) No citizen shall, on ground only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to -
  • (a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or
  • (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained whole or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of general public.
  • (3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.
  • (4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) or article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.



Article 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment




  • (1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
  • (2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.
  • (3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment.
  • (4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State.
  • (4A) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which, in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented in the services under the State.
  • (5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination.



Article 17 Abolition of Untouchability


"Untouchability" is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of "Untouchability" shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.


Article 18 Abolition of titles



  • (1) No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State.
  • (2) No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.
  • (3) No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State.
  • (4) No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State.